|"They received every man a penny..."|
The following again is taken from Dom Gueranger's The Liturgical Year, and includes the Propers for today's mass (Septuagesima Sunday), along with some commentary from the abbot.
The Station, at Rome, is in the Church of Saint Laurence outside the walls. The ancient Liturgists observe how there is the relation of martyrdom between the just Abel, (whose being murdered by Cain is the subject of one of the Responsories of to-day’s Matins,) and the courageous Martyr, over whose tomb the Church of Rome commences her Septuagesima.
The Introit describes the fears of death, wherewith Adam and his whole posterity are tormented, in consequence of sin. But, in the midst of all this misery, there is heard a cry of hope, for man is still permitted to ask mercy from his God. God gave man a promise, on the very day of his condemnation:- the sinner needs but to confess his miseries, and the very Lord, against whom he sinned, will become his Deliverer.
|Circumdederunt me gemitus mortis, dolores inferni circumdederunt me: et in tribulatione mea invocavi Dominum, et exaudivit de templo sancto suo vocem meam.|
Ps. Diligam te, Domine, fortitudo mea: Dominus firmamentum meum, et refugium meum, et liberator meus. V. Gloria Patri. Circumdederunt.
|The groans of death surrounded me, and the sorrows of hell encompassed me; and in my affliction I called upon the Lord, and he heard my voice from his holy temple.|
Ps. I will love thee, O Lord, my strength: the Lord is my firmament, my refuge, and my deliverer. V. Glory. The groans.
In the Collect, the Church acknowledges that her children justly suffer the chastisements, which are the consequences of sin; but she beseeches her divine Lord to send them that Mercy, which delivers from misery.
|Preces populi tui, quaesumus Domine, clementer exaudi, ut qui juste pro peccatis nostris affligimur, pro tui Nominis gloria misericorditer liberemur. Per Dominum.||Mercifully hear, we beseech thee, O Lord, the prayers of thy people; that we who are justly afflicted for our sins, may be mercifully delivered for the glory of thy name. Through, &c.|
|A cunctis nos, quaesumus, Domine, mentis et corporis defende periculis: et intercedente beata et gloriosa semperque Virgine Dei Genitrice Maria, cum beatis Apostolis tuis Petro et Paulo, atque beato N., et omnibus Sanctis, salutem nobis tribue benignus et pacem: ut destructis adversitatibus et erroribus universis, Ecclesia tua secura tibi serviat libertate.||Preserve us, O Lord, we beseech thee, from all dangers of soul and body: and by the intercession of the glorious and blessed Mary, the ever Virgin-Mother of God, of the blessed Apostles, Peter and Paul, of Blessed N. (here is mentioned the titular Saint of the Church,) and of all the Saints, grant us, in thy mercy, health and peace; that all adversities and errors being removed, thy Church may serve thee with undisturbed liberty.|
The Priest adds a third Collect, which is left to his own choice.
|Lectio Epistolae beati Pauli Apostoli ad Corinthios.Cap. IX.|
Fratres, nescitis quod ii qui in stadio currunt, omnes quidem currunt, sed unus accipit bravium? Sic currite, ut comprehendatis. Omnis autem, qui in agone contendit, ab omnibus se abstinet: et illi quidem ut corruptibilem coronam accipiant, nos autem incorruptam. Ego igitur sic curro, non quasi in incertum: sic pugno, non quasi aerem verberans: sed castigo corpus meum et in servitutem redigo: ne forte cum aliis praedicaverim, ipse reprobus efficiar. Nolo enim vos ignorare, fratres, quoniam patres nostri omnes sub nube fuerunt, et omnes mare transierunt, et omnes in Moyse, baptizati sunt, in nube et in mari: et omnes eamdem escam spiritalem manducaverunt et omnes eumdem potum spiritalem biberunt (bibebant autem de spiritali, consequente eos petra; petra autem erat Christus): Sed non in pluribus eorum beneplacitum est Deo.
|Lesson of the Epistle of Saint Paul the Apostle to the Corinthians.Ch. IX.|
Brethren, know you not that they that run in the race, all run indeed, but one receiveth the prize? So run that you may obtain. And every one that striveth for the mastery, refraineth himself from all things; and they indeed that they may receive a corruptible crown, but we an incorruptible one. I therefore so run, not as at an uncertainty: I so fight, not as one beating the air: but I chastise my body and bring it into subjection: lest, perhaps, when I have preached to others, I myself should become a castaway. For I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea, and all in Moses were baptised in the cloud, and in the sea: and did all eat the same spiritual food; and all drank the same spiritual drink: (and they drank of the spiritual rock that followed them, and the rock was Christ.) But with the most of them God was not well pleased.
These stirring words of the Apostle deepen the sentiments already produced in us by the sad recollections of which we are this day reminded. He tells us, that this world is a race, wherein all must run but that they alone win the prize, who run well. Let us, therefore, rid ourselves of everything that could impede us, and make us lose our crown. Let us not deceive ourselves: we are never sure, until we reach the goal. Is our conversion more solid than was St. Paul’s? Are our good works better done, or more meritorious, than were his? Yet, he assures us, that he was not without the fear that he might perhaps be lost; for which cause, he chastises his body, and keeps it in subjection to the spirit. Man, in his present state, has not the same will for all that is right and just, which Adam had before he sinned, and which, notwithstanding, he abused to his own ruin. We have a bias which inclines us to evil; so that our only means of keeping our ground is by sacrificing the flesh to the spirit. To many this is very harsh doctrine; hence, they are sure to fail, - they never can win the prize. Like the Israelites spoken of by our Apostle, they will be left behind to die in the desert, and so lose the Promised Land. Yet, they saw the same miracles that Josue and Caleb saw! So true is it that nothing can make a salutary impression on a heart, which is obstinately bent on fixing all its happiness in the things of this present life; and though it is forced, each day, to own that they are vain, yet each day it returns to them, vainly but determinedly loving them.
The heart, on the contrary, that puts its trust in God, and mans itself to energy by the thought of the divine assistance being abundantly given to him that asks it, - will not flag or faint in the race, and will win the heavenly prize. God’s eye is unceasingly on all them that toil and suffer. These are the truths expressed in the Gradual.
|Adjutor in opportunitatibus, in tribulatione sperent in te qui noverunt te, quoniam non derelinquis quaerentes te, Domine.|
Quoniam non in finem oblivio erit pauperis; patientia pauperum non peribit in aeternum: exsurge, Domine, non praevaleat homo.
|A helper in due time, in tribulation: let them trust in thee, who know thee, for thou hast not forsaken them that seek thee, O Lord.|
For the poor man shall not be forgotten to the end; the patience of the poor man shall not perish for ever: arise, O Lord, let not man prevail.
The Tract sends forth our cry to God, and thee cry is from the very depths of our misery. Man is humbled exceedingly by the Fall; but he knows, that God is full of mercy, and that, in his goodness, he punishes our iniquities less than they deserve: were it not so, none of us could hope for pardon.
|De profundis clamavi ad te, Domine: Domine, exaudi vocem meam.|
V. Fiant aures tuae intendentes in orationem servi tui.
V. Si iniquitates observaveris, Domine, Domine, quis sustinebit?
V. Quia apud te propitatio est, et propter legem tuam sustinui te, Domine.
|Out of the depths I have cried to thee, O Lord: Lord, hear my voice.|
V. Let thine ears be attentive to the voice of my supplication.
V. If thou, O Lord, wilt mark iniquities, Lord, who shall stand it?
V. For with thee there is merciful forgiveness, and by reason of thy law, I have waited for thee, O Lord.
|Sequentia sancti Evangelii secundum Matthaeum.Cap. XX.|
In illo tempore, dixit Jesus discipulis suis parabolam hanc: Simile est regnum coelorum homini patrifamilias, qui exiit primo mane conducere operarios in vineam suam. Conventione autem facta cumu operariis ex denario diurno, misit eos in vineam suam. Et egressus circa horam tertiam, vidit alios stantes in foro otiosos, et dixit illis: Ite et vos in vineam meam, et quod justum fuerit, dabo vobis. Illi autem abierunt. Iterum autem exiit circa sextam et nonam horam, et fecit similiter. Circa undecimam vero exiit; et invenit alios stantes, et dicit illis: Quid hic statis tota die otiosi? Dicunt ei: Quia nemo nos conduxit. Dixit illis: Ite et vos in vineam meam. Cum sero autem factum esset, dicit Dominus vineae procuratori suo: Voca operarios, et redde illis mercedem, incipiens a novissimis usque ad primos. Cum venissent ergo qui circa undecimam horam venerant, acceperunt singulos denarios. Venientes autem et primi, arbitrati sunt quod plus essent accepturi: acceperunt autem et ipsi singulos denarios. Et accipientes murmurabant adversus patremfamilias, dicentes: Hi novissimi una hora fecerunt, et pares illos nobis fecisti qui portavimus pondus diei et aestus? At ille respondens uni eorum, dixit: Amice, non facio tibi injuriam; nonne ex denario convenisti mecum? Tolle quod tuum est, et vade: volo autem et huic novissimo dare sicut et tibi. Aut non licet mihi quod volo facere? An oculus tuus nequam est, quia ego bonus sum? Sic erunt novissimi primi, et primi novissimi. Multi enim sunt vocati, pauci vero electi.
|Sequel of the holy Gospel according to Matthew. Ch. XX.|
At that time, Jesus spoke to his disciples this parable: The kingdom of heaven is like to a householder who went out early in the morning to hire labourers into his vineyard. And having agreed with the labourers for a penny a day, he sent them into his vineyard. And going out about the third hour, he saw others standing in the market-place idle. And he said to them: Go you also into my vineyard, and I will give you what shall be just. And they went their way. And again he went out about the sixth and the ninth hour, and did in like manner. But about the eleventh hour he went out and found others standing, and he saith to them: Why stand you here all the day idle? They say to him: Because no man hath hired us. He saith to them: Go ye also into my vineyard. And when evening was come, the lord of the vineyard saith to his steward: Call the labourers and pay them their hire, beginning from the last even to the first. When, therefore, they were come that came about the eleventh hour, they received every man a penny. But when the first also came, they thought that they should receive more: and they also received every man a penny. And receiving it they murmured against the master of the house, saying: These last have worked but one hour, and thou hast made them equal to us that have borne the burden of the day, and the heats. But he answering said to one of them: Friend, I do thee no wrong: didst thou not agree with me for a penny? Take what is thine, and go thy way: I will also give to this last even as to thee. Or, is it not lawful for me to do what I will? Is thy eye evil, because I am good? So shall the last be first, and the first last. For many are called, but few chosen.
It is of importance, that we should well understand this Parable of the Gospel, and why the Church inserts it in to-day’s Liturgy. Firstly, then, let us recall to mind on what occasion our Saviour spoke this Parable, and what instruction he intended to convey by it to the Jews. He wishes to warn them of the fast approach of the day when their Law is to give way to the Christian Law; and he would prepare their minds against the jealousy and prejudice which might arise in them, at the thought that God was about to form a Covenant with the Gentiles. The Vineyard is the Church in its several periods, from the beginning of the world to the time of God himself coming to dwell among men, and form all true believers into one visible and permanent society. The Morning is the time, from Adam to Noah; the Third Hour begins with Noah and ends with Abraham; the Sixth Hour includes the period which elapsed between Abraham and Moses; and lastly, the Ninth Hour opens with the age of the Prophets, and closes with the Birth of the Saviour. The Messias came at the Eleventh Hour, when the world seemed to be at the decline of its day. Mercies unprecedented were reserved for this last period, during which, Salvation was to be given to the Gentiles by the preaching of the Apostles. It is by this mystery of Mercy that our Saviour rebukes the Jewish pride. By the selfish murmurings made against the Master of the House by the early Labourers, our Lord signifies the indignation which the Scribes and Pharisees would show at the Gentiles being adopted as God’s children. Then, he shows them how their jealousy would be chastised: Israel, that had laboured before us, shall be rejected for their obduracy of heart, and we Gentiles, the last comers, shall be made first, for we shall be made members of that Catholic Church, which is the Spouse of the Son of God.
This is the interpretation of our Parable given by St. Augustine and St. Gregory the Great, and by the generality of the Holy Fathers. But it conveys a second instruction, as we are assured by the two Holy Doctors just named. It signifies the calling given by God to each of us individually, pressing us to labour, during this life, for the Kingdom prepared for us. The Morning is our childhood. TheThird Hour, according to time division used by the ancients in counting their day, is sun-rise; it is our youth. The Sixth Hour, by which name they called our mid-day, is manhood. The Eleventh Hour, which immediately preceded sun-set, is old age. The Master of the House calls his Labourers at all these various Hours. They must go that very hour. They that are called in the Morning may not put off their starting for the Vineyard, under pretext of going afterwards, when the Master shall call them later on. Who has told them that they shall live to the Eleventh Hour? They are called at the Third Hour; they may be dead at the Sixth. God will call to the labours of the last hour such as shall be living when that hour comes; but, if we should die at mid-day, that last call will not avail us. Besides, God has not promised us a second call, if we excuse ourselves from the first.
At the Offertory, the Church invites us to celebrate the praises of God. God has mercifully granted us, that the hymns we sing to the glory of his name, should be our consolation in this vale of tears.
|Bonum est confiteri Domino, et psallere nomini tuo, Altissime.||It is good to give praise to the Lord, and to sing to thy name, O Most High.|
|Muneribus nostris, quaesumus, Domine, precibusque susceptis: et coelestibus nos munda mysteriis, et clementer exaudi. Per Dominum.||Having received, O Lord, our offerings and prayers, cleanse us, we beseech thee by these heavenly mysteries, and mercifully hear us. Through, &c.|
|Exaudi nos, Deus Salutaris noster: ut per hujus Sacramenti virtutem, a cunctis nos mentis et corporis hostibus tuearis, gratiam tribuens in praesenti, et gloriam in futuro.||Graciously grant us, O God our Saviour, that by virtue of this Sacrament, thou mayest defend us from all enemies, both of soul and body; giving us grace in this life, and glory in the next.|
The third Secret is left to the Priest’s own choice.
In the Communion-Antiphon, the Church prays that man, having now been regenerated by the Bread of heaven, may regain that likeness to his God which Adam received at his creation. The greater our misery, the stronger should be our hope in Him, who descended to us that we might ascend to him.
|Illumina faciem tuam super servum tuum, et salvum me fac in tua misericordia: Domine, non confundar, quoniam invocavi te.||Make thy face to shine upon thy servant; save me in thy mercy. Let me not be confounded, O Lord, for I have called upon thee.|
|Fideles tui, Deus, per tua dona firmentur: ut eadem et percipiendo requirant, et quaerendo sine fine percipiant. Per Dominum.||May thy Faithful, O God, be strengthened by thy gifts; that by receiving them, they may ever hunger after them, and hungering after them, they may have their desires satisfied in the everlasting possession of them. Through, &c.|
|Mundet et muniat nos, quaesumus, Domine, divini Sacramenti munus oblatum, et intercedente beata Virgine Dei Genitrice Maria, cum beatis Apostolis Petro et Paulo, atque beato N. et omnibus Sanctis, a cunctis nos reddat et perversitatibus expiatos, et adversitatibus expeditos.||May the oblation of this divine Sacrament, we beseech thee, O Lord, both cleanse and defend us; and by the intercession of Blessed Mary, the Virgin-Mother of God, together with that of thy blessed Apostles, Peter and Paul, as likewise of blessed N., and of all the Saints, free us from all sin, and deliver us from all adversity.|
The third Postcommunion is left to the Priest’s own choice.